A bladder fistula is an abnormal connection or opening between the bladder and the vagina. A bladder fistula may occur as a result of a congenital defect, urologic or gynecologic surgery, injury, gynecologic cancers, or radiation therapy.
Bladder fistula symptoms include leakage of urine from the vagina, passage of gas from the urethra while urinating and frequent urinary tract infections (UTIs).
Bladder fistula is most commonly diagnosed using an X-ray examination of the bladder. During the X-ray, a dye whose path can be analyzed by radiologists is injected into the patient to determine if an abnormal channel, or fistula, exists.